|Full Name||Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor|
|DOB||April 21, 1926|
Elizabeth II has ruled as Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland since February 6, 1952. In 2015, Elizabeth surpassed Victoria to become the longest-reigning queen in British history. In November 1947, she married Philip Mountbatten, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she had four children: Charles, Prince of Wales, Anne, Princess Royal, Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex. She became the first British monarch to reach the Sapphire Jubilee in 2017. After 73 years of marriage, her husband, Prince Philip, died in April 2021 at the age of 99.
Elizabeth is the longest-serving female head of state in history, the oldest living and longest-reigning present monarch, and the oldest and longest-serving incumbent head of state. Elizabeth has encountered republican sentiment and criticism of the royal family on occasion, particularly following the breakdown of her children’s marriages.
Elizabeth II Early Life
Elizabeth was the eldest daughter of Prince Albert, Duke of York, and Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, his wife. As the child of King George V’s younger son, the infant Elizabeth had little chance of ascending to the throne until her uncle, Edward VIII, abdicated in her father’s favor on December 11, 1936, when her father became King George VI and she became heir presumptive. During World War II, she and her sister, Princess Margaret Rose, were forced to spend much of their time securely away from the London blitz and apart from their parents, primarily at Balmoral Castle in Scotland and the Royal Lodge, Windsor, and Windsor Castle.
Elizabeth got individual constitutional history lectures from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, and French instruction from a succession of native-speaking governesses. The 1st Buckingham Palace Company of Girl Guides was founded particularly for her to socialize with other girls her age.
Elizabeth’s parents traveled to Canada and the United States in 1939. Elizabeth stayed in Britain, as she had done in 1927 when they toured Australia and New Zealand, since her father considered she was too young to go on public tours. As her parents left, she “seemed distraught.” They communicated frequently, and on May 18, she and her parents conducted the first royal transatlantic phone conversation.
Elizabeth II made her first solo public appearance in 1943, during a visit to the Grenadier Guards, of which she had been appointed colonel the year before. As she reached her 18th birthday, parliament amended the law to allow her to serve as one of five Counsellors of State in the event of her father’s disability or absence abroad, such as his July 1944 journey to Italy. In February 1945, she was assigned the service number 230873 as an honorary second subaltern in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. She received the rank of honorary junior commander after training as a driver and technician.
Elizabeth II Marriage
In 1934 and 1937, Elizabeth met her future husband, Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark. They were second cousins once removed through Denmark’s King Christian IX and third cousins through Queen Victoria. Elizabeth, who was just 13 years old at the time, said she fell in love with Philip after another meeting at the Royal Naval College in Dartmouth in July 1939, and they began exchanging letters. On July 9, 1947, she was 21 years old when they announced their engagement. The marriage was fraught with controversy because Philip had no financial means, was foreign-born, and had sisters who had married German noblemen with Nazi ties.
Elizabeth II and Philip were married in Westminster Abbey on November 20, 1947. They were showered with 2,500 wedding gifts from all over the world. On November 14, 1948, Elizabeth II gave birth to her first child, Prince Charles. One month before, the King had issued letters patent granting her children the right to use the style and title of a royal prince or princess, which they would not have had otherwise because their father was no longer a royal prince. In 1950, Princess Anne was born as the couple’s second child.
Elizabeth II celebrated the Silver Jubilee of her accession in 1977. Parties and events were held across the Commonwealth, with many of them coinciding with her connected national and Commonwealth tours. Despite almost coincidental unfavorable press coverage of Princess Margaret’s separation from her husband, Lord Snowdon, the celebrations reaffirmed the Queen’s popularity. The Queen underwent a state visit to the United Kingdom in 1978 by Romania’s communist leader, Nicolae Ceaușescu, and his wife, Elena, despite privately believing they had “blood on their hands. “According to Paul Martin Sr., at the end of the 1970s, the Queen was concerned that the Crown “had little meaning for” Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. According to Tony Benn, the Queen found Trudeau very disappointing.
Elizabeth II celebrated her Golden Jubilee, or the 50th anniversary of her accession to the throne, in 2002. Her sister and mother died in February and March, respectively, and the media speculated on whether or not the Jubilee would be a success.  She embarked on another extended tour of her realms, beginning with Jamaica in February, where she described the farewell luncheon as “memorable” after a power outage dropped the King’s House, the governor-official general’s residence, into darkness.
Elizabeth II addressed the UN General Assembly for the second time in 2010, this time as Queen of all Commonwealth realms and Head of the Commonwealth.  Ban Ki-moon, the UN Secretary-General , described her as “an anchor for our generation.”  During her visit to New York, which followed a tour of Canada, she officially unveiled a memorial garden for British victims of the September 11 attacks.  The Queen’s 11-day visit to Australia in October 2011 was her 16th since 1954.
The Queen Elizabeth’s II Diamond Jubilee in 2012 commemorated her 60th year on the throne, and celebrations were staged across her countries, the Commonwealth, and beyond. Her husband and she went on a lengthy tour of the United Kingdom, while her children and grandchildren went on royal tours of other Commonwealth countries on her behalf. Jubilee beacons were lit around the world on June 4th. The Queen made an unexpected visit at a wedding party at Manchester Town Hall while touring the city as part of her Jubilee celebrations, which made international headlines. The Queen and her husband celebrated their blue sapphire wedding anniversary in November (65th).
On 6 February 2017, she became the first British monarch to honor a Sapphire Jubilee, and on 20 November, she became the first British monarch to commemorate a Platinum Wedding Anniversary.  In August 2017, Philip stepped down from his official obligations as Queen’s consort. On 20 April 2018, the Commonwealth of Nations’ government leaders confirmed that she will be succeeded as Commonwealth Head of State by Charles. The Queen declared that it was her “sincere wish” that Charles would succeed her in the role.
The Queen’s Platinum Jubilee is scheduled for 2022, and if she is still reigning on May 27, 2024, she will have surpassed Louis XIV of France as the longest-reigning monarch of a sovereign state in verifiable world history. She has no plans to abdicate, however Prince Charles and other family members began to take over more of her responsibilities as she approached her nineties and began to make fewer public appearances.