|Full Name||Karl Heinrich Marx|
|DOB||May 5, 1818|
|Profession||Economist, Journalist, Philosopher|
|Demise||March 14, 1883|
Karl Marx was a German philosopher, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist, journalist, and socialist revolutionary who criticized political economy. Marx was born in Trier, Germany, and attended the universities of Bonn and Berlin to study law and philosophy. His theories on capitalism and communism have made him famous. Marx co-authored The Communist Manifesto with Friedrich Engels in 1848, and later in life, he wrote Das Kapital, which discussed the labor theory of value.
Marxism is a set of critical views about society, economics, and politics that claim that human societies develop via a class conflict. This displays itself in the conflict between the ruling classes who control the means of production and the working classes who enable these means by selling their labor-power in exchange for payment in the capitalist mode of production. Marx pushed for its implementation, stating that in order to overthrow capitalism and achieve socioeconomic emancipation, the working class needed engage in organized proletarian revolutionary action.
Marx has been called one of the most influential figures in human history, and his work has been praised and criticized in equal measure. His economics work set the groundwork for some of today’s beliefs regarding labor and its relationship to capital. Marx’s work has impacted many intellectuals, labor organizations, artists, and political parties around the world, with many of them copying or changing his ideas. Marx is widely regarded as one of the founding fathers of modern social science.
Karl Marks Life
Heinrich Mark, Karl Mark’s father and a renowned lawyer, was an Enlightenment thinker who supported Kant and Voltaire and participated in Prussian constitutional agitations. Henrietta Pressburg, Mark’s mother, was born in Holland. Karl’s parents were both Jewish and stemmed from a long line of rabbis, but Karl’s father was baptized in the Evangelical Established Church a year or so before he was born, most likely because his professional job required it. When Karl was six years old, he was baptized.
Marx attended the high school at Trier from 1830 to 1835. The institution was under police monitoring because it was suspected of harboring liberal professors and students. During this time, Marx’s writings reflected a Christian devotion and a desire for self-sacrifice on behalf of humanity. He matriculated at the University of Bonn in October 1835. He only took classes in the humanities, such as Greek and Roman mythology and the history of art.
The introduction to Hegel’s theory, which was prevalent at the time, and his devotion to the Young Hegelians were key experiences for Marx in Berlin. Marx was first repulsed by Hegel’s teachings, and when he became ill, it was partly due to “great vexation at having to build an idol of a philosophy I despised,” as he wrote to his father. Marx joined an organization called the Doctor Club, whose members were actively immersed in the new literary and philosophical movement, despite the Hegelian push in the revolutionary student culture.
The publication of Ludwig Feuerbach’s Das Wesen des Christentums in 1841 greatly impacted Marx and other Young Hegelians. To Marx’s mind, the book’s author successfully criticized Hegel, an idealist who believed that matter or existence was inferior to and dependent on mind or spirit, from the opposite, or materialist, perspective, demonstrating how the “Absolute Spirit” was a projection of “the real man standing on the foundation of nature.”
Marx began contributing to the Rheinische Zeitung, a newly created newspaper in Cologne, in January 1842. Cologne was the center of Prussia’s most industrially advanced section, and it was the liberal democratic organ of a group of young merchants, bankers, and industrialists. An essay on press freedom pertains to this period of Marx’s life. He criticized censorship as a moral evil that included peering into people’s minds and hearts and assigning to weak and wicked mortals powers that presupposed an omniscient mind, because he took the existence of absolute moral standards and universal principles of ethics for granted at the time.
Marx married Jenny von Westphalen in June 1843, after a seven-year courtship. Jenny, four years Karl’s senior, was a beautiful, clever, and well-liked woman who hailed from a distinguished military and administrative family. Her half-brother went on to become a reactionary Prussian interior minister. Her father, a disciple of French socialist Saint-Simon, was fond of Karl, despite the opposition of others in her family.
Karl Marx was introduced to socialism by Moses Hess in Brussels, and eventually broke away totally from the Young Hegelians’ theory. He wrote The German Ideology while he was there, which is where he initially formed his historical materialism thesis. However, Marx was unable to find a willing publisher, and The German Ideology, as well as Theses on Feuerbach, which he wrote at the same time, were not published until after his death.
Karl Marx developed his opinions and solidified his intellectual position during his time in Brussels, where he clashed with the leading figures in the working-class movement. In 1846, he openly chastised Wilhelm Weitling, the German leader, for his moralistic appeals. Marx believed that bourgeois society could not be bypassed; the proletariat could not just leap into communism; and the workers’ movement needed a scientific foundation, not moralistic platitudes.
In the first months of 1848, revolution exploded across Europe, in France, Italy, and Austria. A member of the temporary government had invited Marx to Paris barely in time to avoid expulsion by the Belgian government. Marx returned to the Rhineland as the revolution gathered traction in Austria and Germany. He advocated a policy of partnership between the working class and the democratic bourgeoisie in Cologne, rejecting the nomination of independent workers’ candidates for the Frankfurt Assembly and arguing vehemently against the Workers’ Union’s agenda for proletarian revolution.
Marx shifted the Communist League’s executive headquarters to the city and established a German Workers’ Club with the help of local German socialists.  In 1848, Marx returned to Cologne, where he began circulating a handbill titled the Demands of the Communist Party with Germany, in the hopes of spreading the revolution to Germany. On June 1, Marx began publishing the Neue Rheinische Zeitung, a daily newspaper that he helped finance with a recent inheritance from his father. The newspaper featured Marx as a key writer and the dominant editorial influence, and it was designed to present news from across Europe with his own Marxist interpretation of events.
Karl Marx Death
Karl Marx suffered a catarrh after the death of his wife Jenny in December 1881, which kept him sick for the next 15 months of his life. It eventually contributed to bronchitis and pleurisy that killed him in London on March 14, 1883, when he was 64 years old and a stateless person.
On March 17, 1883, his body was interred in Highgate Cemetery (East), London, in an area designated for agnostics and atheists. According to Francis When there were between nine and eleven mourners at his funeral, however research from contemporary sources shows thirteen named attendees.