Mao Zedong – Great Communist Leader of China

Mao zedong Biography
Full Name Mao Zedong
DOBDecember 26, 1893
NationalityChinese
ProfessionPolitician
DemiseSeptember 9, 1976
Mao Zedong Information

Mao Zedong was a  Chinese communist revolutionary and the founding father of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), which he ruled as the head of the Chinese Communist Party from 1949 until his death in 1976. Maoism is a Marxist–Leninist ideology that encompasses his theories, military operations, and political programs. Mao was the leader of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) from 1935 until his death, and he was the People’s Republic of China’s chairman (chief of state) from 1949 to 1959, as well as the party’s chairman until his death.

Mao Zedong Early Life

Mao Zedong began attending his local village’s primary school at the age of eight, where he learned the basics of the Wujing. He was compelled to start working full-time on his family’s farm when he was 13 years old. Mao left his family to study in a higher elementary school in a neighboring county and later at a secondary school in Changsha, the provincial capital, in defiance of parental authority (which included an arranged marriage that he never acknowledged or consummated). Fighting against the Qing monarchy broke in Wuchang on October 10, 1911, and the revolution expanded to Changsha within two weeks. Mao served as a soldier for six months in a revolutionary army unit in Hunan.

During the summer of 1919, Mao Zedong assisted in the formation of a number of organizations in Changsha that drew together students, businessmen, and workers—but not yet peasants—in rallies aimed at pressuring the government to fight Japan. His writings at the period are full of references to the “red flag army” around the world and the victory of the 1917 Russian Revolution, but it wasn’t until January 1921 that he was fully committed to Marxism as the conceptual foundation of the Chinese revolution.

Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party

Mao zedong in communist party

Mao took over as principal of the Lin Changsha elementary school in September 1920, and in October he established a Socialist Youth League group there. He married Yang Kaihui, his previous ethics teacher’s daughter, that winter. In July 1921, he joined leaders from other communist organizations in China and two delegates from the Moscow-based Comintern at the Chinese Communist Party’s First Congress.

Mao Zedong took a break in his native hometown of Shaoshan in the winter of 1924–25. After seeing peasant demonstrations sparked by the shooting of several dozen Chinese by foreign police in Shanghai (May and June 1925), Mao became acutely aware of the peasantry’s revolutionary potential. Mao was appointed interim head of the Nationalist Party’s publicity department, where he edited the party’s flagship magazine, the Political Weekly, and attended the Second Kuomintang Congress in January 1926.

Mao Zedong examined the peasant movement in January and February 1927, concluding that several hundred million peasants in China would “rise like a tornado or tempest—a force so extremely quick and powerful that no power, however large, will be able to stop it” in a relatively short period. In a strict sense, such prediction turned out to be incorrect. Hundreds of millions of peasants took part in a spontaneous revolution that did not spread across China “in a very short time,” or even at all.

Chiang Kai-shek, who was focused on forming an alliance with the urban and rural aristocracy, turned against the worker and peasant revolt, and killed the Shanghai workers who had delivered the city to him in April. In October 1927, Mao led a few hundred peasants who had survived the Hunan autumn harvest uprising to a base in the Jinggang Mountains, on the border between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces, and launched a new type of revolutionary warfare in the countryside, in which the Red Army, rather than the unarmed masses, would play a central role.

The Road To Power

From base areas in the countryside, Mao Zedong and Zhu De, the army’s commander in chief, effectively developed guerilla warfare strategies. Those operations, on the other hand, were seen as a holding operation by its protagonists, and much more so by the Shanghai Central Committee, until the next rise of revolution in the cities. The Central Committee ordered the Red Army to take six important cities in south-central China in the summer of 1930 in the hopes of triggering a workers’ revolution. Mao ignored orders and returned to his headquarters in southern Jiangxi, abandoning the battle.

The Jiangxi Soviet was founded in November 1931 in a section of Jiangxi province, with Mao as its chairman. The promise of ultimate success now seemed to lay in the continuous strengthening and spread of the base areas, given the lack of support for the revolution in the towns. The Soviet regime quickly established control over a population of several million people. In the first four of Chiang Kai-so-called shek’s encirclement and annihilation operations, the Red Army, which had risen to a strength of around 200,000 soldiers, handily beat enormous forces of inferior troops sent against it by Chiang Kai-shek.

Specialists disagree about the extent of Mao’s real power, particularly during the years 1932–34, and which military strategies were his or other party leaders’. The majority of historians believe that in the final years of the Jiangxi Soviet, Mao served primarily as a figurehead with little control over policy, particularly in military matters. When 8,000 troops who had survived the perils of the Long March arrived in Shaanxi province in northwestern China in the autumn of 1935, events were already moving toward the third phase of Mao’s rural odyssey, which would be marked by a renewed united front with the Nationalists against Japan and Mao’s rise to unrivaled party supremacy.

Although Mao did not move to Yan’an until December 1936, this period is often referred to as the Yan’an period. When 8,000 troops who had survived the perils of the Long March arrived in Shaanxi province in northwestern China in the autumn of 1935, events were already moving toward the third phase of Mao’s rural odyssey, which would be marked by a renewed united front with the Nationalists against Japan and Mao’s rise to unrivaled party supremacy. Although Mao did not go to Yan’an until December 1936, this period is often referred to as the Yan’an period.

In July 1937, the Japanese launched their attempt to enslave all of China. By September 1937, the conditions of a new united front between the communists and the Nationalists had been nearly agreed, and the formal agreement was announced. During the anti-Japanese fight, the communists divided a large section of their army into small units and dispatched them behind enemy lines to serve as nuclei for guerrilla forces that effectively controlled wide swaths of the countryside stretching between the invader’s towns and communication lines.

As a result, they not only increased their armed forces to anywhere between 500,000 and a million at the time of the Japanese surrender, but they also gained effective grassroots political control over a population of up to 90 million people. For the first time since the 1920s, Mao had the opportunity to dedicate to thinking and writing during the years 1936–40. It was at this time that he first read in translation a number of Soviet philosophical publications and developed his own explanation of dialectical materialism, the best-known sections of which are those named “On Practice” and “On Contradiction.”

Personal Life

Mao personal life

During Mao Zedong’s reign, his personal life was kept exceedingly secretive. His personal physician, Li Zhisui, released The Private Life of Chairman Mao, a book that discusses various aspects of Mao’s private life, such as chain smoking cigarettes, addiction to powerful sleeping drugs, and a huge number of sexual partners. Some scholars and others who knew and worked with Mao have questioned the truth of these characterizations.

Mao learnt some English, primarily via Zhang Hanzhi, his English instructor, interpreter, and diplomat. His spoken English consisted of only a few single words, phrases, and brief sentences. He began systematically learning English in the 1950s, which was remarkable given that Russian was the primary foreign language taught in Chinese schools at the time.

Death

Mao Zedong death

Mao Zedong’s health deteriorated in his latter years, which was most likely exacerbated by his chain smoking. During his final years, he suffered from a variety of lung and heart diseases, which became a state secret. He had two significant heart attacks, one in March and one in July, followed by a third on September 5, rendering him ineligible. He died nearly four days later, on September 9, 1976, at 00:10, at the age of 82. The Communist Party waited until 16:00 to announce his death, when a national radio broadcast delivered the news and called for party unity.

Top Famous Quotes By Mao Zedong

  1. Communism is not love. Communism is a hammer which we use to crush the enemy.
  2. The atom bomb is a paper tiger which the United States reactionaries use to scare people. It looks terrible, but in fact it isn’t.
  3. War can only be abolished through war, and in order to get rid of the gun it is necessary to take up the gun.
  4. Politics is war without bloodshed while war is politics with bloodshed.
  5. Learn from the masses, and then teach them.
  6. We think too small, like the frog at the bottom of the well. He thinks the sky is only as big as the top of the well. If he surfaced, he would have an entirely different view.
  7. The people, and the people alone, are the motive force in the making of world history.
  8. Once all struggle is grasped, miracles are possible.
  9. If you want to know the taste of a pear, you must change the pear by eating it yourself. If you want to know the theory and methods of revolution, you must take part in revolution. All genuine knowledge originates in direct experience.
  10. An army without culture is a dull-witted army, and a dull-witted. – Mao Zedong

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