|Full name||Thomas Alva Edison|
|DOB||February 11, 1847|
|Died||October 18, 1931|
Thomas Edison was an American inventor and businessman who is regarded as one of the country’s most influential businessmen and innovators. Edison rose from humble beginnings to become a major technological innovator, including the development of the first commercially successful incandescent light bulb. Today, he is credited with assisting in the development of America’s economy throughout the Industrial Revolution.
In the world of science and technology, Thomas Alva Edison is a name to be reckoned with. He was the mastermind behind countless discoveries and breakthroughs that helped create America’s economy. He was a prolific inventor and a renowned businessman.
He was the forerunner in America’s first technological revolution because of his brains, ideas, hard work, and tenacity. Edison is credited with laying the groundwork for the current electric world.
His ideas and innovations laid the groundwork for industries and made life more pleasant for humans. Edison is credited with various innovations, including the stock ticker, phonograph, first practical electric light bulb, motion picture camera, mechanical vote recorder, and a battery for an electric car, with about 1093 US patents and many more patents in other countries.
Thomas Edison Childhood & Early Life
Edison was born in Milan, Ohio, on February 11, 1847. He was the youngest of Samuel and Nancy Edison’s seven children. His father was a political leader from Canada who had been banished, and his mother was a gifted teacher who had a significant influence on Edison’s early life. Edison had hearing problems in both ears as a child due to scarlet fever and ear infections, and he was practically deaf as an adult.
Thomas Edison would later claim, with variations on the story, that he lost his hearing due to an injury to his ears sustained in a train accident. Others, on the other hand, have dismissed this as the only cause of his hearing loss.
Edison’s family relocated to Port Huron, Michigan, in 1854, where he spent 12 weeks in public school. His teacher labeled him “difficult” because he was a hyperactive child who was often distracted.
His mother promptly took him out of school and began tutoring him at home. He had a strong hunger for knowledge when he was 11 years old, devouring books on a wide range of topics. Edison devised a process for self-education and independent learning in this wide-open curriculum that he would use for the rest of his life.
Thomas Edison persuaded his parents to let him sell newspapers to travelers on the Grand Trunk Railroad line when he was 12 years old. Edison began producing his own tiny newspaper, the Grand Trunk Herald, using his access to the daily news bulletins teletyped to the station office.
Passengers flocked to the up-to-date articles. This was the first of many business enterprises in which he identified a need and capitalized on the opportunity.
Edison also utilized his railroad connections to set up a modest laboratory in a railway baggage compartment to conduct chemical experiments. A chemical fire erupted during one of his tests, and the car caught fire.
The conductor rushed in and smacked Edison on the side of the head, causing him to lose some hearing. He was compelled to sell his newspapers at numerous stations along the trip after being thrown off the train.
Thomas Edison as Telegraph Operator
While working for the railroad, Edison experienced a near-tragic event that turned out to be lucky. The thankful father of a three-year-old that Edison saved from being run over by an errant train repaid him by teaching him how to operate a telegraph. He had learned enough to work as a telegraph operator by the age of 15.
Edison worked as an itinerant telegrapher throughout the Midwest for the following five years, filling up for those who had gone to the Civil War. He spent his free time reading widely, studying and experimenting with telegraph technology, and learning about electrical science.
Thomas Edison traveled to Louisville, Kentucky, in 1866, when he was 19 years old, to work for The Associated Press. He was able to spend most of his time reading and experimenting because he worked the night shift. He developed a free-thinking and inquisitive mindset, proving things to himself through objective analysis and experimentation.
Edison excelled at his telegraph job at first because early Morse code was written on a piece of paper, thus his partial deafness was not a hindrance. However, as technology progressed, receivers became more and more outfitted with a sounding key, allowing telegraphers to “read” messages by listening to the clicks. Edison was disadvantaged as a result, with fewer and fewer job options.
When Edison went home in 1868, he discovered that his beloved mother was suffering from mental illness and that his father had lost his job. The family was on the verge of starvation. Edison knew he had to take charge of his own destiny.
Thomas Edison went to Boston on the advice of a friend and got a job with the Western Union Company. Boston was America’s center for science and culture at the time, and Edison relished it. He created and patented an electronic voting recorder for quickly tallying votes in the legislature in his spare time.
Massachusetts lawmakers, on the other hand, were uninterested. Most legislators, they indicated, did not want votes counted quickly. They sought more time to persuade legislators to reconsider their opinions.
Thomas Edison Inventions
Thomas Edison arrived in New York City in 1869, when he was 22 years old, and produced his first invention, the Universal Stock Printer, an enhanced stock ticker that synchronized the transactions of several stock tickers.
The Gold and Stock Telegraph Company was so taken with the work that they agreed to pay him $40,000 for the rights. As a result of his accomplishment, he left his job as a telegrapher to pursue invention full-time.
Thomas Edison had earned a reputation as a top-notch inventor by the early 1870s. In Newark, New Jersey, he opened his first tiny laboratory and production plant in 1870, employing six machinists.
Thomas Edison forged various alliances and developed items for the highest bidder as an independent entrepreneur. It was frequently Western Union Telegraph Company, the industry leader, but it was also one of Western Union’s competitors.
Thomas Edison Quadruplex Telegraph
In one case, Thomas Edison designed the quadruplex telegraph for Western Union, which was capable of transmitting two signals in two different directions on the same wire. However, railroad tycoon Jay Gould snatched the invention from Western Union, paying Edison over $100,000 in cash, bonds, and stock and causing years of litigation.
Thomas Edison relocated his expanding activities to Menlo Park, New Jersey, in 1876, and established an autonomous industrial research complex with machine shops and labs.
Western Union prompted him to create a communication device to compete with Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone in the same year. He never did.
Thomas Edison Phonograph
In answer to particular requests for additional goods or enhancements, Thomas Edison developed a number of devices, including the carbon transmitter. But he also possessed the gift of serendipity: when he noticed an unexpected phenomenon, he didn’t hesitate to pause work and diverge in a new direction.
This is how he made his most groundbreaking discovery, the phonograph, in 1877. Because the telephone was considered a form of acoustic telegraphy, Thomas Edison spent the summer of 1877 working on a machine that would transcribe signals as they were received, in this case in the form of the human voice, so that they could be delivered as telegraph messages, just as he had for the automatic telegraph.
Earlier scholars, like French inventor Léon Scott, hypothesized that if each sound could be visually recorded, it would generate a different shape resembling shorthand, or phonography (“sound writing”), as it was known at the time.
By using a stylus-tipped carbon transmitter to generate impressions on a strip of paraffined paper, Thomas Edison wanted to solidify this notion. When the paper was pushed back beneath the pen, the barely apparent indentations produced a hazy replication of sound, much to his surprise.
In December 1877, Thomas Edison debuted the tinfoil phonograph, which replaced the strip of paper with a tinfoil-wrapped cylinder. It was met with skepticism. Indeed, a famous French scientist pronounced it to be a sophisticated ventriloquist’s trick device.
The general public’s awe was swiftly followed by unanimous praise. Although it took a decade for the phonograph to get from a laboratory curiosity to a commercial product, Edison was called the Wizard of Menlo Park.
Thomas Edison Light Bulb
One of the carbon experiments’ offshoots came to fruition earlier. During a solar eclipse near the Rocky Mountains on July 29, 1878, Samuel Langley, Henry Draper, and other American scientists needed highly sensitive equipment that could monitor minute temperature changes in heat emitted from the Sun’s corona.
To meet these requirements, Edison created a “microtasimeter” that used a carbon button. At a time when great strides were being made in electric arc lighting, the men on the expedition, which Edison accompanied, discussed the feasibility of “subdividing” the intense arc lights so that electricity could be used for lighting in the same way that small, individual gas “burners” could be used.
The main issue seems to be keeping the burner, or bulb, from being consumed by overheating. Thomas Edison believed that by creating a microtasimeter-like device to manage the current, he would be able to address the problem. He confidently declared that he would create a safe, gentle, and low-cost electric light to replace the gaslight.
For 50 years, incandescent electric light had been the bane of inventors, but Edison’s previous accomplishments earned him credibility for his bold prediction. As a result, the Edison Electric Light Company was founded by a group of notable investors, including J.P. Morgan and the Vanderbilts, who gave him $30,000 for research and development.
Unlike arc lights, which were linked in a series circuit, Thomas Edison recommended connecting his lights in a parallel circuit by subdividing the current, so that the failure of one lightbulb would not cause the entire circuit to fail. Some famous scientists claimed that such a circuit would never be possible, but their predictions were based on low-resistance lamp systems, which were the only sort of electric light available at the time. Edison, however, determined that a bulb with high resistance would serve his purpose, and he began searching for a suitable one.
Francis Upton, a 26-year-old Princeton University graduate with an M.A. in physics, assisted him. Upton, who joined the laboratory staff in December 1878, filled in for Edison’s lack of mathematical and theoretical knowledge. (Edison later revealed, “At the time I experimented on the incandescent lamp I did not understand Ohm’s law.” On another occasion, he said, “I do not depend on figures at all. I try an experiment and reason out the result, somehow, by methods which I could not explain.”)
By the summer of 1879, Thomas Edison and Upton had made enough headway on a generator that could also be used as a motor when reversed that Edison, who had been plagued by failed incandescent lamp efforts, pondered creating an electric distribution system for power rather than light. By October, Edison and his team had obtained promising results with a sophisticated, regulator-controlled vacuum bulb with a platinum filament, but the incandescent light would have been impracticable due to the platinum’s high cost.
They realized that under the substantially better vacuum they were now achieving from developments in the vacuum pump, carbon could be kept for some time without extensive regulation apparatus while experimenting with an insulator for the platinum wire.
Thomas Edison discovered that a carbon filament gave bright light with the high resistance necessary for subdivision, based on the work of English scientist Joseph Wilson Swan. From the first breakthrough in mid-October through the first presentation for Edison Electric Light Company sponsors on December 3, steady progress was made.
Despite the fact that the world’s first operational lighting system had been installed aboard the steamer Columbia in April, Edison did not discover that carbonized bamboo fibre produced a good material for the filament until the summer of 1880. In January 1881, Hinds and Ketcham, a New York printing business, installed the first commercial land-based “isolated” (single-building) incandescent system.
In connection with an exhibition at the Crystal Palace, a temporary, demonstration central power system was erected at the Holborn Viaduct in London in the fall. In lower Manhattan, Edison personally oversaw the laying of the mains and installation of the world’s first permanent, commercial central power system, which went live in September 1882.
Despite the fact that the early systems were plagued by problems and that it took many years for incandescent lighting powered by electricity from central stations to make significant inroads into gas lighting, isolated lighting plants for hotels, theaters, and stores thrived—as did Edison’s reputation as the world’s greatest inventor.
One of the unintended discoveries discovered in the Menlo Park laboratory during the development of incandescent light 15 years later foreshadowed the discovery of the electron by British scientist J.J.
Thomson. A young engineer in charge of testing the light globes, William J. Hammer, noticed a blue glow around the positive pole of a vacuum bulb and a blackening of the wire and bulb at the negative pole in 1881–82. This phenomenon was originally known as “Hammer’s phantom shadow,” but it became known as the “Edison effect” after Edison invented the light bulb in 1883.
The thermionic emission of electrons from the hot to the cool electrode was eventually discovered to explain this behavior, and it became the basis of the electron tube, laying the groundwork for the electronics industry.
When development on the Manhattan power system began, Thomas Edison had relocated his operations from Menlo Park to New York City. The Menlo Park property was increasingly being utilized only as a vacation house. In August 1884, Edison’s wife, Mary, died there of “congestion of the brain,” presumably a tumor or hemorrhage, after suffering from declining health and episodes of mental instability. Edison’s death, along with his relocation from Menlo Park, nearly marks the halfway point of his life.
The Edison laboratory
On February 24, 1886, Thomas Edison married Mina Miller, the daughter of a prominent Ohio manufacturer, at the age of 20. He bought his new bride a hilltop house in West Orange, New Jersey, and built a large, new laboratory nearby, which he meant to be the world’s first real research center. He invented the commercial phonograph there, as well as the motion picture business and the alkaline storage battery.
Despite this, Thomas Edison had reached the end of his creative time. He was a lousy manager and organizer who thrived in small, unstructured environments with a small group of close companions and aides; the West Orange laboratory was far too large and diverse for his abilities.
Furthermore, because the inventor’s new function as an industrialist, which came with the commercialization of incandescent lighting and the phonograph, took up a substantial amount of his time, electrical advances began to fall into the hands of university-trained mathematicians and scientists. Above all, Edison’s efforts were spent for more than a decade on a magnetic ore-mining business that proved to be the undisputed failure of his career.
The phonograph was the first significant project at the new laboratory, which began in 1887 when Alexander Graham Bell, his cousin Chichester, and Charles Tainter invented the graphophone, a better version of Edison’s first device that utilized waxed cardboard instead of tinfoil.
Two years later, Thomas Edison claimed to have “perfected” the phonograph, which was far from the case. In reality, it wasn’t until the late 1890s, after Edison developed manufacturing and recording facilities close to the laboratory, that all of the technical issues were resolved and the phonograph became a viable business venture.
Meanwhile, Thomas Edison came up with the concept of popularizing the phonograph by synchronizing it with a zoetrope, a device that provided the illusion of motion to images taken in succession. In 1888, he handed the project to William K.L. Dickson, a photography-interested employee.
After analyzing the work of a number of European photographers who were also attempting to capture motion, Edison and Dickson were able to create a functional camera and viewing equipment, dubbed the Kinetograph and Kinetoscope, respectively. However, synchronizing sound and action proved to be such an insurmountable challenge that the idea of integrating the two was abandoned, and the silent film was formed.
In 1893, Thomas Edison built the world’s first motion-picture stage, dubbed the “Black Maria,” in his laboratory, and Kinetoscopes, which featured peepholes that permitted one person at a time to watch the moving pictures, were released to the great success the following year. Rival innovators quickly created screen-projection devices, hurting the Kinetoscope’s profitability, so Edison bought a projector designed by Thomas Armat and marketed it as “Edison’s latest miracle, the Vitascope.”
The alkaline storage battery was a phonograph derivative that Thomas Edison began creating as a power source for the phonograph at a period when most households lacked electricity. Despite the fact that it took another 20 years for all of the battery’s problems to be resolved, Edison was a major supplier of batteries for submarines and electric cars by 1909 and had even founded an electric vehicle manufacturing firm.
One of Thomas Edison’s biggest fans, Henry Ford, approached him in 1912 and requested him to create a battery for the Model T’s self-starter. Ford’s request resulted in a lasting friendship between the two Americans, and in October 1929, he hosted a 50th-anniversary celebration of incandescent light, which became a worldwide apotheosis for Edison.
The majority of Edison’s achievements concerned electricity or communication, but the magnetic ore-separator was the Edison Laboratory’s primary goal in the late 1880s and early 1890s. When Edison was looking for platinum to use in his experimental incandescent light, he first worked on the separation. The apparatus was designed to separate platinum from sand that included iron.
During the 1880s, iron ore prices soared to record heights, giving the impression that if the separator could remove the iron from unsuitable low-grade ores, abandoned mines might be successfully reopened. Edison bought or acquired the rights to 145 ancient mines in the east, including the Ogden mine at Ogdensburg, New Jersey, where he built a big pilot plant.
However, he was never able to overcome the engineering issues or work the bugs out of the system, and when ore prices fell in the mid-1890s, he abandoned the project. By that time, he had sold all but a tiny portion of his stock in the General Electric Company, often at rock-bottom prices, and had become more isolated from the electric lighting industry.
Failure, on the other hand, had no effect on Edison’s will to create. Despite the fact that none of his later ventures were as successful as his early ones, he worked well into his eighties.
Thomas Edison Death
Thomas Edison died in his house, Glenmont, in West Orange, New Jersey, on October 18, 1931, of diabetic complications. He was 84 years old when he died.
To mark his death, several towns and companies throughout the world dimmed their lights or shut off their electricity for a short time.
Thomas Edison Legacy
Thomas Edison’s life was the archetypal rags-to-riches success tale, and he became a national hero in the United States.
He could be a tyrant to employees and cruel to competitors as an unfettered egoist. He was a media seeker who didn’t know how to interact and frequently disregarded his family.
Edison, on the other hand, was one of the most well-known and respected Americans in the world by the time he died. He was at the front of America’s first technical revolution, laying the groundwork for the contemporary electronic world.